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Prolonged Exposure to Air Conditioning: The Hidden Dangers and Benefits

As the summer months approach, many of us turn to air conditioning (A/C) to escape the sweltering heat. While A/C can provide relief from the heat, prolonged exposure to these systems can have negative effects on our health and our environment.

Sleep Disturbances

While air conditioning can be a lifesaver on hot summer days, there are some potential drawbacks to consider. For example, exposure to loud A/C units has been shown to disrupt sleep patterns, leading to fatigue, mood disturbances, and decreased cognitive function (1). In a study published in the Journal of Sleep Research they found that noise levels above 40 decibels can significantly impair sleep quality (2).

However, there are also benefits to using air conditioning. For one, cooler temperatures can promote better sleep. A study published in the journal Sleep found that a cooler sleep environment (around 60-67°F) can improve sleep quality and duration (10). Additionally, air conditioning can improve sleep quality by reducing the risk of heat-related sleep disturbances (12).

But that’s not all. Cooling the body before sleep can also improve sleep quality and reduce sleep disturbances (13). And, air conditioning can reduce sleep disruptions caused by heat and humidity (14). In fact, sleep quality is affected by both temperature and humidity, with cooler and drier conditions promoting better sleep (15).

Overall, while there are some potential drawbacks to using air conditioning, the benefits outweigh the costs for most people. By choosing a quiet and well-maintained air conditioning unit, and using it in conjunction with other sleep-promoting strategies, you’ll be able to enjoy a more restful and refreshing sleep.

Heat Intolerance

Prolonged exposure to air conditioning can lead to heat intolerance, a condition where the body becomes less able to regulate its temperature in hot environments. This can be particularly problematic for individuals who are already prone to heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

Studies have shown that prolonged exposure to air conditioning can lead to a decrease in the body’s ability to sweat, which is a natural mechanism for cooling the body (15). This can be especially concerning for individuals who are already experiencing heat-related symptoms, as it can further exacerbate their condition.

In addition to decreased sweating, prolonged exposure to air conditioning can also lead to a decrease in the body’s ability to regulate its temperature (16). This can cause the body to become overheated, leading to symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, and dizziness.

It’s important to note that heat intolerance is not limited to individuals who are already experiencing heat-related symptoms. Anyone who is exposed to prolonged periods of air conditioning can experience heat intolerance, regardless of their overall health. Keep perspective, this is a small population and not common.

Prolonged exposure to A/C-controlled environments can also lead to heat intolerance, making it difficult for our bodies to regulate temperature fluctuations. This can increase the risk of heat-related illnesses, such as heat stroke, especially in individuals who are not accustomed to hot temperatures (3).

Immune System Suppression

Cold air can weaken the immune system, making us more susceptible to viral and bacterial infections (4). A study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology found that exposure to cold air can reduce the body’s natural killer cell activity, leading to impaired immune function (5). Did you know that cold exposure harms our nasal antiviral immunity ? (6)

Muscle Pain and Stiffness

Muscle pain is a common symptom of air conditioning exposure, and it can range from mild discomfort to severe pain. The pain can be felt in various parts of the body, including the back, neck, shoulders, and legs. In some cases, the pain can be so severe that it can interfere with daily activities and even affect sleep.

So, what causes muscle pain from air conditioning exposure? One of the main culprits is the sudden change in temperature and humidity. When we step into an air-conditioned space, our bodies are suddenly exposed to a cooler and drier environment. This can cause our muscles to contract and tighten, leading to pain and stiffness.

Another factor that can contribute to muscle pain from air conditioning exposure is the lack of moisture in the air. When the air is too dry, it can cause our skin and muscles to become dehydrated, leading to pain and discomfort.

Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures can also cause muscle pain and stiffness, which can then exacerbate conditions such as arthritis (6).

Mold and Indoor Air Pollution

Mold and air conditioning are a common combination that can have serious consequences for your health and the integrity of your home. When air conditioning systems are not properly maintained, they can create an ideal environment for mold growth. This is because air conditioning systems can create a humid environment, which is perfect for mold to thrive. Mold can grow in air conditioning systems through condensation, water leaks, or other sources of moisture.

Poorly maintained A/C systems can create a breeding ground for mold and bacteria, leading to indoor air pollution and respiratory problems (7). A study published in the Journal of Environmental Health found that indoor air pollution can increase the risk of respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (8).

If left unchecked, mold can cause serious health problems, such as respiratory issues, asthma, and other respiratory diseases. In addition to health problems, mold can also cause damage to your home, including discoloration and damage to walls, ceilings, and other surfaces. To prevent mold growth in your air conditioning system, it is important to regularly maintain the system, including cleaning it regularly, checking for leaks, and ensuring that it is properly ventilated.

In addition to regular maintenance, there are also some steps you can take to prevent mold growth in your air conditioning system. Using a safe mold-killing product in your air conditioning system can help kill mold and prevent it from growing.

One easy method of determining your humidity is to purchase a hygrometer (moisture meter) online. You’re looking to keep the setting in the low 40% range. If the moisture levels excessive, using a dehumidifier in your home can help reduce the level, making it less likely for mold to grow.

Dehydration and Dry Skin

Dry skin is a common problem that many people experience when air conditioning is used extensively. When air conditioning is used, it can dry out the skin by reducing moisture from the air. This can lead to dry, itchy, and flaky skin that can be uncomfortable.   Air conditioning can also strip the skin of its natural oils, leading to dryness and irritation.

To combat dry skin caused by air conditioning, it is important to take steps to moisturize the skin. This can be done by using a humidifier in the home to add moisture back into the air, and by applying a moisturizer to the skin after bathing or showering. It is also important to avoid using hot water when bathing or showering, as this can strip the skin of its natural oils and make it even drier. Taking these steps keeps the skin hydrated and healthy, even in the dry air of an air-conditioned home.

Another consideration is that A/C-controlled environments can not only lead to dehydration and dry skin, but make it more difficult for our bodies to regulate temperature fluctuations increasing the risk of skin irritation (9).


While A/C can provide relief from the heat, it is essential to maintain these systems properly to minimize the negative effects on your health and the environment. By maintaining your A/C systems and being aware of the potential risks, you can enjoy the benefits of air conditioning while minimizing its negative impacts.

Here are a few tips:

  • Maintain your air conditioning unit: Check for leaks, ventilation and clean the unit regularly
  • Clean your ducts
  • Check your air quality for mold and more
  • Replace your filters regularly
  • Take regular breaks to stretch and move around when you’re in an air-conditioned space.
  • Get a moisture meter and check regularly
  • Use a humidifier to add moisture to the air and prevent dehydration if the levels <40% or >50%.
  • Avoid sudden changes in temperature and humidity by gradually adjusting the thermostat.
  • Consider using a fan or other cooling device that doesn’t rely on air conditioning.




  1. “The Effects of Noise on Sleep” (Journal of Sleep Research, 2018)
  2. “Noise and Sleep Quality” (Journal of Sleep Research, 2015)
  3. “Heat Intolerance and Heat-Related Illnesses” (Journal of Applied Physiology, 2017)
  4. “The Effects of Cold Air on the Immune System” (Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2016)
  5. “Cold Air and Immune Function” (Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2013)
  6.  “Cold exposure impairs extracellular vesicle swarm–mediated nasal antiviral immunity”(Mech of Allery/Immunology 2023)
  7. “Muscle Pain and Stiffness in Cold Temperatures” (Journal of Applied Physiology, 2018)
  8. “Mold and Indoor Air Pollution” (Journal of Environmental Health, 2019)
  9. “Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease” (Journal of Environmental Health, 2017)
  10. “Dehydration and Dry Skin in A/C-Controlled Environments” (Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 2019)
  11. The effects of temperature on sleep” (Sleep, 2018)
  12. Air conditioning and sleep quality” (Indoor Air, 2017)
  13. “Cooling the body before sleep” (Physiology & Behavior, 2016)
  14. Air conditioning and sleep disruptions” (Sleep Health, 2019)
  15. Sleep quality and temperature and humidity” (Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2018)
  16.  The effects of air conditioning on the body’s ability to sweat” (Journal of Applied Physiology, 2018)
  17.  The effects of air conditioning on the body’s ability to regulate its temperature” (Journal of Environmental Health, 2019)