Less toxins (PFAS) in our water…. more needs to be done !

Water from faucet

Finally, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced drinking water standards for six PFAS (forever) chemicals.

The list includes PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, HFPO-DA (GenX), and PFBS.

Why is this a big deal, this is the first time that drinking water standards have been proposed for a new chemical under the Safe Drinking Water Act since 1996. The proposed new drinking water standards follow last year’s announcement of lifetime health advisories for four PFAS. Chemical companies sell PFAS for application to products such as paper and textiles as stain-resistant, water-repellent, and grease-proofing treatments.

Health Issues:

The family of PFAS’s have been linked to serious health problems such as cancer, immune system suppression, increased cholesterol levels, pregnancy-induced hypertension, liver damage, reduced fertility, and increased risk of thyroid disease. To keep perspective, we now know that these chemicals can be toxic at extremely low levels of exposure. Much of the movement to reduce or even eliminate this class of chemicals has come from the outcry of consumers. Retailers have taken consumer sentiment as a strong signal to phase out all PFAS to prevent further contamination of our communities’ drinking water and poisoning their clients.

Where can I find PFAS’s:

PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are manufactured and sold by chemical companies to be used as stain-resistant, water-repellent, and grease-proofing treatments for products such as paper and textiles in our take-out containers.  They are also used in industrial processes and are released into waterways, leading to their widespread presence and because of their longevity a real issue to clean up both the soil and water. Due to their persistence and resistance to breaking down in the environment, they are commonly referred to as “forever” chemicals.

A 2022 study by an organization known as the Toxic-Free Future, have found PFAS in a majority of products labeled as stain- and water-resistant, with 72% of tested products, including those from REI and Amazon.  Another study conducted in 2021, led by scientists from Toxic-Free Future, the University of Washington, and Indiana University, discovered PFAS in all breast milk samples tested and found that the newer PFAS members can also accumulate in people. For those who are concerned with their breast milk see the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s website for additional information.

Remember your take-home containers from the restaurants ? The compostable fast-food containers were designed to be more environmentally friendly than single-use plastic ones. However, a new study has demonstrated that they can release toxic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) into the air. This study was with retailers in Toronto and published in Environmental Science. Technology Letter. 2023.  The results indicate that the PFA’s used to make paper-based food packaging grease resistant, break down over time into volatile fluorotelomer alcohols and fluorotelomer methacrylates contaminating us and our environment.

This same organization’s investigative report identified a PFAS manufacturing facility as a significant source of both PFAS pollution and ozone-depleting chemicals that contribute to health issues and climate change. leading to continued health risks and a burden on us as taxpayers and ratepayers to clean up the contaminated drinking water and soil.

Some state governments are taking steps to regulate PFAS’s.  New enforceable standards also known as Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) have been published for some of the PFAS’s found in drinking water. Ten states are on board with standards including ME, MA, MI, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, and WI with Delaware and Virginia in the process of establishing their own water standards.

The real key is to phase out PFAS in products and promote the use of safer alternatives.  Maine and Washington have granted state agencies the authority to ban PFAS in various products, while other states have enacted restrictions on PFAS in textiles, carpets, rugs, food packaging, oil and gas products, personal care products, and firefighting foam. More states will be looking to resterict PFAS’s shortly.

Good News

Some retailers have heard enough from their clients are adopting safer chemical policies to remove PFAS and along with other dangerous chemicals. Keep in mind this includes both the actual product and the packaging.  Among those who use PFAS’s in their products, outdoor and textile brands have been announcing policies to reduce and eliminate these toxins. Recently, REI joined the ranks of major retailers that have banned PFAS in all textiles and cookware they sell. This action mind you followed a nationwide campaign to make them a more responsible corporate citizen.

Some manufacturers such as Patagonia have also pledged to eliminate all PFAS from their entire product line, however from now until 2024. Speaking of outdoor brands, Columbia has committed to phasing out PFAS by the end of 2024. In 2021, Polartec announced that it would eliminate PFAS in its DWR treatments across its line of performance fabrics. Lowe’s and The Home Depot are no longer selling indoor residential carpets or rugs containing PFAS, and Lowe’s has also committed to discontinuing the sale of fabric protection sprays containing PFAS. Major grocery and fast-food chains like McDonald’s, Burger King, Starbucks, and Whole Foods Market have implemented policies that limit the use of PFAS in food packaging. As of now, more than 30 distinct retail chains, with over 150,000 stores and a combined sales revenue of over $650 billion, have pledged to eliminate or reduce PFAS in food packaging, textiles, and other products.

Take Aways:

If it says waterproof, stain resistant or water repellent be suspect and ask for details, before purchasing

Check your carpeting and outdoor gear (think Scotchguard by 3M)

Want to know what’s in your water ?  TEST NOW

Have you purchased your clothing from some of the manufacturers mentioned in our article, perhaps it’s time for new gear ?

Don’t apply waterproofing agents to your outdoor camping gear or any indoor products unless they explicitly indicate alternative safe agents. (Nikwax, as an example)

Still getting fast food with the old style of grease-free wrappers, think burgers, pizza and fries

Think about taking a glass or silicon container for your left overs from the resturnat, vs using their products.

Use the Retailer Report Card, to check on your retailer’s index of their toxins and policies




Maybe it’s time to think twice about taking acetaminophen (tylenol®)

generic pills

Over-the-counter medications may not be as safe as one assumes.

Most of us assume, generally falsely that if a medication is over the counter it’s safe. Obviously, the FDA has allowed the manufacturer to market the substance in your grocery store. You’re always aware of the following long-on-the-shelf products, such as Tylenol, generic acetaminophen, Nyquil, Dayquil, or Excedrin. The commonality is their contents of acetaminophen the active pain reliever ingredient.

Did you know that ~90% of the pediatric population has used acetaminophen ? In Europe, the same medication is known as paracetamol. And to add to your knowledge of how prevalent the use is, according to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association, ~ 52 million consumers which is approximately 23 percent of U.S. adults in the U.S. use products containing Tylenol each week.

Recalls and Dose Limits:

As a consumer did you know that  Tylenol began marketing in 1955.  In 2009 the FDA started requiring guidelines for adding overdose information to products with acetaminophen. Then in 2011 the FDA  confirmed the link between acetaminophen and liver damage and added a black box warning. This is the strongest label warning for prescription medication, This was then followed up by limiting the amount of acetaminophen in all drug products to 325mg per dose. The story continues and in 2013 the FDA sent a safety warning that acetaminophen can cause rare but serious skin reactions.

Not unlike other medications acetaminophen has had its recalls. After lots of reports in early 2008 of strange smells from their product, McNeil recalled many Tylenol brands because a chemical for treating wood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), made it into the medicine, causing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. It was not until 2009, after an FDA warning letter that the recall took place. In 2011, the recall was expanded recalling several more lots of the medication.  To be clear this recall involved tens of thousands of Tylenol products ultimately having Johnson & Johnson close a manufacturing plant. Because of the egregious infractions, the FDA started supervising quality control measures at three plants. Then in 2012, McNeil recalled nearly 600,000 bottles of infant Tylenol for faulty dosing systems that could result in babies receiving too little or too much medicine.

Legal:

Perhaps there should be more to this story as a new set of 87 lawsuits in 7 states against such chains as Costco, CVS Health, Rite Aid, Safeway, Target, Walgreens and Walmart are in play.  The suits are based on women who when pregnant were taking acetaminophen and birthed an offspring that is experiencing either ADHD or autism symptoms.  And speaking of lawyers who are focusing on the acetaminophen suits, they reportedly spent over $2.1 million in mass tort advertising by November 2022. This represents the third largest advertising outlay for any mass tort action.

For anyone interested in joining these ongoing suits the general criteria is simple:  You took Tylenol®, Excedrin®, DayQuil®, or NyQuil® while pregnant. Tylenol®, acetaminophen, or paracetamol must have been taken before and during the third trimester of pregnancy, together with your child having a diagnosis of one of the following, Autism, ASD, Asperger’s, PDD-NOS, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, or ADHD. If your child is currently under 18 years old, the mother must be the legal guardian pursuing the claim on the injured party’s behalf.  If your child is older than 18, but younger than 29,  the mother must be willing to assist with the case to qualify.

As a note, not all products containing acetaminophen are stated that way on the label. Look for synonyms that include: APAP, AC, Acetaminoph, Acetaminop, Acetamin, Acetam, and Paracetamol. This practice is almost gone due the efforts of the FDA and the  National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) to standardize acetaminophen exclusively.

Drugs and Pregnancy

All physicians are taught that because of the high potential of adverse events during pregnancy, including malformations, any medications should be only used if necessary and only choose the least potentially dangerous, as appropriate. The system of classifying medications for use during pregnancy started in 1979 by the FDA with a range from category A to X, with A being considered safe and X absolutely contraindicated. Acetaminophen had been in category B. Only a few medications were ever recognized as really safe category A, such as thyroid medications.

The newest update took place in 2015  using narratives, with three subdivisions, Pregnancy, Lactation and Female and Male Reproductive potential. For an in-depth  discussion of the history and the current system see : FDA Pregnancy Risk Information: An Update

Scientific Studies:

20 peer-reviewed studies have found an association between the development of brain disorders and the use of the over-the-counter analgesic drug, which was licensed in the mid-1950s and is the most widely used physician-recommended pain reliever worldwide.

A notable study in the American Journal of Epidemiology, titled Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis of Cohort Studies ” attributes a 30 percent increase in the risk of ADHD and a 20% increase in the relative risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) if a mother took high (keywords) amounts of acetaminophen during her pregnancy. This study included seven retrospective cohorts which included 132,738 mother-child pairs, with follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 11 years. Keep in perspective that this evaluation is based on observational information.

In another publication in 2022, Maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and neurobehavioral problems in offspring at 3 years: A prospective cohort study, of the >1000 women who used acetaminophen during pregnancy they saw an association between the medications use and attention and sleep problems in the offspring.

In a more recent follow-up study,”Prenatal and postnatal exposure to acetaminophen in relation to autism spectrum and attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in childhood: Meta-analysis in six European population-based cohorts” their evaluation builds on prior work. They focused on 6 European groups of 73,881 mother-child pairs and the findings were again present,  “results indicated that children prenatally exposed to acetaminophen were 19% and 21% more likely to subsequently have borderline or clinical Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC)  and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  (ADHD) symptoms “

As with many drugs, there is an ongoing debate about their safety and no lack of manipulation of statistics when it comes to commerce and big money.  In a May 2022 literature review, “Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use in infants and children was never shown to be safe for neurodevelopment: a systematic review with citation tracking” the researchers did a dive into the literature and found  218 publications that claimed acetaminophen as safe. Now for the rest of the story…. 52 of the papers actually had experiments testing for safety…. but….the time to assess if the drug was safe was a median time of 48 hrs. Nowhere near enough to evaluate any of the underlying neurodevelopmental issues that are of concern. The only good news from this review, “paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.”

Some Chemistry:

What would you say if to date there are competing theories as to how acetaminophen works ? There are 4 common concepts including controlling fever and pain by blocking an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX-1),  interacting with the endocannabinoid system or altering signals from the neurotransmitter serotonin or perhaps it inhibits neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, including N-methyl-D-aspartate and substance P which are our way to feel pain.

To understand another of the underlying issues with the “safe” use of acetaminophen, it’s known to reduce glutathione in our bodies, even with low doses. Glutathione is our major antioxidant in the body and not a chemical we want to suppress, typically. It’s essential to keep our body in balance, with free radials.

Did you know that according to DrugWatch  “acetaminophen is the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. and  it’s one of the most common causes of poisoning, accounting for “100,000 calls to poison centers, roughly 60,000 emergency-room visits and hundreds of deaths each year in the U.S.”

Take Aways:

Check your medication labels for acetaminophen content

Fevers are nature’s way to gear up our immune system they may be uncomfortable but a good way for our bodies to fight infection

Don’t combine alcohol and acetaminophen as it reduces your anti-oxidant levels

For high fevers, consult with your physician/pediatrician

Warm baths can be helpful to stabilize a fever

Always use the least amount of medication necessary

 

9101112




Thinking of pregnancy….. don’t take acetaminophen !

Pills

Pregnancy and acetaminophen don’t mix well.

Most of us assume, generally falsely, that if a medication is over the counter it’s safe. Obviously, the FDA has allowed the manufacturer to market the substance in your grocery store. You’re always aware of the following long-on-the-shelf products, such as Tylenol, generic acetaminophen, Nyquil, Dayquil, or Excedrin. The commonality is their contents of acetaminophen the active pain reliever ingredient.

Did you know that ~90% of the pediatric population has used acetaminophen ? In Europe, the same medication is known as paracetamol. And to add to your knowledge of how prevalent the use is, according to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association, ~ 52 million consumers which is approximately 23 percent of U.S. adults in the U.S. use products containing Tylenol each week.

Recalls and Dose Limits:

As a consumer did you know that Tylenol began marketing way back in 1955 ?  In 2009 the FDA started requiring guidelines for adding overdose information to products with acetaminophen. Then in 2011 the FDA  confirmed the link between acetaminophen and liver damage and added a black box warning. This is the strongest label warning for prescription medication, This was then followed up by limiting the amount of acetaminophen in all drug products to 325mg per dose. The story continues and in 2013 the FDA sent a safety warning that acetaminophen can cause rare but serious skin reactions.

Not unlike other medications acetaminophen has had its recalls. After lots of reports in early 2008 of strange smells from their product, McNeil recalled many Tylenol brands because a chemical for treating wood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), made it into the medicine, causing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. It was not until 2009, after an FDA warning letter that the recall took place. In 2011, the recall was expanded recalling several more lots of the medication.  To be clear this recall involved tens of thousands of Tylenol products ultimately having Johnson & Johnson close a manufacturing plant. Because of the egregious infractions, the FDA started supervising quality control measures at three plants. Then in 2012, McNeil recalled nearly 600,000 bottles of infant Tylenol for faulty dosing systems that could result in babies receiving too little or too much medicine.

Legal:

Perhaps there should be more to this story as a new set of 87 lawsuits in 7 states against such chains as Costco, CVS Health, Rite Aid, Safeway, Target, Walgreens and Walmart are in play.  The suits are based on women, who when pregnant, were taking acetaminophen and birthed an offspring that is experiencing either ADHD or autism symptoms.  And speaking of lawyers who are focusing on the acetaminophen suits, they reportedly spent over $2.1 million in mass tort advertising by November 2022. This represents the third largest advertising outlay for any mass tort action.

For anyone interested in joining these ongoing suits the general criteria is simple:  You took Tylenol®, Excedrin®, DayQuil®, or NyQuil® while pregnant. Tylenol®, acetaminophen, or paracetamol must have been taken before and during the third trimester of pregnancy, together with your child having a diagnosis of one of the following, Autism, ASD, Asperger’s, PDD-NOS, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, or ADHD. If your child is currently under 18 years old, the mother must be the legal guardian pursuing the claim on the injured party’s behalf.  If your child is older than 18, but younger than 29,  the mother must be willing to assist with the case to qualify.

As a note, not all products containing acetaminophen are stated that way on the label. Look for synonyms that include: APAP, AC, Acetaminoph, Acetaminop, Acetamin, Acetam, and Paracetamol. This practice is almost gone due the efforts of the FDA and the  National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) to standardize acetaminophen exclusively.

Drugs and Pregnancy

All physicians are taught that because of the high potential of adverse events during pregnancy, including malformations, any medications should be only used if necessary and only choose the least potentially dangerous, as appropriate. The system of classifying medications for use during pregnancy started in 1979 by the FDA with a range from category A to X, with A being considered safe and X absolutely contraindicated. Acetaminophen had been in category B. Only a few medications were ever recognized as really safe category A, such as thyroid medications.

The newest update took place in 2015  using narratives, with three subdivisions, Pregnancy, Lactation and Female and Male Reproductive potential. For an in-depth  discussion of the history and the current system see : FDA Pregnancy Risk Information: An Update

Scientific Studies:

20 peer-reviewed studies have found an association between the development of brain disorders and the use of the over-the-counter analgesic drug, which was licensed in the mid-1950s and is the most widely used physician-recommended pain reliever worldwide.

A notable study in the American Journal of Epidemiology, titled Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis of Cohort Studies ” attributes a 30 percent increase in the risk of ADHD and a 20% increase in the relative risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) if a mother took high (keywords) amounts of acetaminophen during her pregnancy. This study included seven retrospective cohorts which included 132,738 mother-child pairs, with follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 11 years. Keep in perspective that this evaluation is based on observational information.

In another publication in 2022, Maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and neurobehavioral problems in offspring at 3 years: A prospective cohort study, of the >1000 women who used acetaminophen during pregnancy they saw an association between the medications use and attention and sleep problems in the offspring.

In a more recent follow-up study,”Prenatal and postnatal exposure to acetaminophen in relation to autism spectrum and attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in childhood: Meta-analysis in six European population-based cohorts” their evaluation builds on prior work. They focused on 6 European groups of 73,881 mother-child pairs and the findings were again present,  “results indicated that children prenatally exposed to acetaminophen were 19% and 21% more likely to subsequently have borderline or clinical Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC)  and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  (ADHD) symptoms “

In September 2021 in the journal of Nature Reviews Endocrinology 91 professionals signed a consensus statement cautioning against the use of acetaminophen during pregnancy.” Their words were; “Data support the contribution of environmental exposure during fetal life, including exposure to pharmaceuticals, to these increases in rates of neurological, urogenital and reproductive disorders.” In figure 1 of their paper you’ll find a well done infographic that really tells the observational story of why we should all be concerned.

As with many drugs, there is an ongoing debate about their safety and no lack of manipulation of statistics when it comes to commerce and big money.  In a May 2022 literature review, “Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use in infants and children was never shown to be safe for neurodevelopment: a systematic review with citation tracking” the researchers did a dive into the literature and found  218 publications that claimed acetaminophen as safe. Now for the rest of the story…. 52 of the papers actually had experiments testing for safety…. but….the time to assess if the drug was safe was a median time of 48 hrs. Nowhere near enough to evaluate any of the underlying neurodevelopmental issues that are of concern. The only good news from this review, “paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.”

Some Chemistry:

What would you say if to date there are competing theories as to how acetaminophen works ? There are 4 common concepts including controlling fever and pain by blocking an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX-1),  interacting with the endocannabinoid system or altering signals from the neurotransmitter serotonin or perhaps it inhibits neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, including N-methyl-D-aspartate and substance P which are our way to feel pain.

To understand another of the underlying issues with the “safe” use of acetaminophen, it’s known to reduce glutathione in our bodies, even with low doses. Glutathione is our major antioxidant in the body and not a chemical we want to suppress, typically. It’s essential to keep our body in balance, with free radials.

Did you know that according to DrugWatch  “acetaminophen is the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. and  it’s one of the most common causes of poisoning, accounting for “100,000 calls to poison centers, roughly 60,000 emergency-room visits and hundreds of deaths each year in the U.S.”

Take Aways:

Check your medication labels for acetaminophen content

Fevers are nature’s way to gear up our immune system they may be uncomfortable but a good way for our bodies to fight infection

Don’t combine alcohol and acetaminophen as it reduces your anti-oxidant levels

For high fevers, consult with your physician/pediatrician

Warm baths can be helpful to stabilize a fever

Always use the least amount of medication necessary

 

 




Adding Poison to your water, 1945-2021

Tap water

Poisoning the water knowingly…… is this really acceptable ?

We tend to avoid the issues of severely confrontational journalism as there’s just too much polarization happening daily. This blog is one of those that will either have you making false claims and buying the party line or lining up to do something about what you and your family ingest daily, water.

Teeth:

Fluoride is a unique mineral and has been added to water supplies for decades. The main proponents claim that it reduces the amount of cavities and is essential for strong well-formed teeth in our children. Heck some of us even pay to paint fluoride on our kid’s teeth.

When the dust settled in the 1999’s the Center for Disease Control, Oral Health Division changed their understanding of when fluoride makes a change in babies’ teeth. It’s not from a systemic (whole body source like water) but rather it’s from direct contact with the tooth.

In their own studies here is what they found: “Early studies reported that caries reduction attributable to fluoridation ranged from 50% to 70%, but by the mid-1980s the mean DMFS scores in the permanent dentition of children who lived in communities with fluoridated water were only 18% lower than among those living in communities without fluoridated water. A review of studies on the effectiveness of water fluoridation conducted in the United States during 1979-1989 found that caries reduction was 8%-37% among adolescents (mean: 26.5%)”  Hmmmm, not quite the highly touted percentages, and keep in mind this data is from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Dose:

Mind you each of us who live in a town that still fluorinates the water is dosing at different levels based on the amount of water you drink and the foods you eat. So, when you consider the dose for your infant or toddler its’s very different from you as an adult. If you’re pregnant the issue is completely another story and should have you avoiding the fluorinated water and products, period as it may be detrimental to your developing fetus.

Do you think the use of tap water in your babies formula should continue, given the doses and the now well established data ? Yes studies have suggested that using the many forms, from water which is the principle source to food products from fluorinated toothpaste to the dental products all add to the load.

64 Studies:

Over the years there have been a bevy of studies. Back in the 1990’s a set of studies sounded the alarm about the impact on IQ and the use of fluoride in both the water and from other sources, typically salt. The studies were from different countries; China, India Iran and Mexico giving an opportunity to compare different genetics, environments and cultures.  The key is that the data although weak, was consistent in the findings with human subjects experiencing lowered IQ’s.

Let’s be clear, we are not talking about rat or mice studies but actual human information that should have sounded alarm bells.  The next evolution of understanding the fluoride implications was published by Harvard researchers in 2012. They did a meta-analysis of 27 studies and concluded that the findings are consistent and reliable, IQ is impacted negatively with the intake of fluorinated water and products.

The Environmental Health Perspectives is a journal sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Hint…. your tax dollars sponsored the research.

How Bad is the IQ loss:

Disturbingly of the 27 studies evaluated 26 showed that the children suffered from a lower IQ of 7 points with typical levels of fluoride in the water.

A quick FYI: The EPA says that 1 IQ point loss is significant, but wait….. with a 5 point loss the real impact is we lose 1/2 of the bright students and increase those needing institutional support by 60%….. These small number are amazingly impactful and we, our society can’t afford the effects from this poisoning.

Worldwide:

Curiously 97% of the European population do NOT drink fluorinated water. In the US, 12 state make fluoridation mandatory. (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio and South Dakota) In Oregon it varies by city and water supplier.

Why Now:

What’s new in this world of research that has put new wind in the sails, finally. Four landmark studies, starting with the 2017 Mexican study and then the 2018 repeat study finding the ADHD correlation followed by the 2019 Canadian study  looking at pregnancy association with IQ loses and finally the 2020 study “Fluoride exposure from infant formula and child IQ in a Canadian birth cohort”.

The science is clear and repeatable regardless of the cohort…..the 2020 conclusions:  “ Exposure to increasing levels of fluoride in tap water was associated with diminished non-verbal intellectual abilities; the effect was more pronounced among formula-fed children”.

The findings are more than disturbing with IQ loses and in one of the studies they saw an increased incident of ADHD symptoms. In previous studies you’ll find issues of thyroid dysfunction as well as sleep disorders found with fluoride intake from water. Regardless of you’re being a parent or a health care provider the incidence of childhood disorders is rapidly raising, and this generally avoidable chemical is a contributing factor.

The next few years in court will decide the outcome of this debate and may finally, since 1945, end the use of a toxic neurochemical being added to our water supplies. Don’t count on this being a slam dunk as with all other health considerations money is clouding the science. Fluoride if found to be a toxin will cost the fertilizer companies a ton… in the billions of dollars.

Take Aways:

  • Reevaluate your belief system about legal and safe being in the same sentence.
  • Call and ask your water supplier if your water is being fluorinated
  • Go to the Environmental Working Groups look up and see what’s in your cities water. (note it’s an older database)
  • If your water system is fluorinated, get a R/O filter or distiller (yep expensive) other don’t work
  • Don’t mix fluorinated tap water with your babies’ formula
  • Keep pressure on the city and share the new information in hopes of making changes
  • Use caution in topical treatments as some of the solution can be swallowed, esp. by kids
  • If you’re living in a city with fluorination, avoid the restaurants and go to alternative cities
  • Don’t drink the tap water (if fluorinated) and ask for I know… bottled (yes it’s not the best choice and check that it’s not fluorinated….



Air pollution and Anxiety in our children….another air pollution issue to consider !

City traffic

Exposure to air pollution is a well-established global health problem associated with complications for people with asthma and respiratory disease, as well as heart conditions and an increased risk of stroke, and according to the World Health Organization, is responsible for millions of deaths annually. Emerging evidence now suggests that air pollution may also impact the metabolic and neurological development of children.

A study from researchers at the University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center looks at the correlation between exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and childhood anxiety, by looking at the altered neurochemistry in pre-adolescents.

“Recent evidence suggests the central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to air pollution, suggesting a role in the etiology of mental disorders, like anxiety or depression,” Kelly Brunst, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the College of Medicine, and lead author on the study, said. “This is the first study to use neuroimaging to evaluate TRAP exposure, metabolite dysregulation in the brain and generalized anxiety symptoms among otherwise healthy children.”

The study was published by the journal Environmental Research and is available online.

The researchers evaluated imaging of 145 children at an average age of 12 years, looking specifically at the levels of myo-inositol found in the brain through a specialized MRI technique, magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Myo-inositol is a naturally-occurring metabolite mainly found in specialized brain cells known as glial cells, that assists with maintaining cell volume and fluid balance in the brain, and serves as a regulator for hormones and insulin in the body. Increases in myo-inositol levels correlate with an increased population of glial cells, which often occurs in states of inflammation.

They found that, among those exposed to higher levels of recent TRAP, there were significant increases of myo-inositol in the brain, compared to those with lower TRAP exposure. They also observed increases in myo-inositol to be associated with more generalized anxiety symptoms.

“In the higher, recent exposure group, we saw a 12 percent increase in anxiety symptoms,” Brunst said.

Brunst noted however, that the observed increase in reported generalized anxiety symptoms in this cohort of typically developing children was relatively small and are not likely to result in a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder.

“However, I think it can speak to a bigger impact on population health … that increased exposure to air pollution can trigger the brain’s inflammatory response, as evident by the increases we saw in myo-inositol,” Brunst said. “This may indicate that certain populations are at an increased risk for poorer anxiety outcomes.”




Were you or your children born premature, check your heart !

Premature infant

Premature Birth impacts hearts, into adulthood

Medical science has advanced to the point where we can save premature babies at only 32 weeks of gestation or less. Normally medical science considers 37-40 weeks of gestation to be a “normal” preganacy. At less than the 37 week mark the pregancy is considered premature. Did you know that the current rate of premi’s in the US is 1 in 10 births ? And it’s higher is those without good prenatal care and in lower socioeconomic groups.

However its not surprising that the lack of time to develope has a lifelong impact on the premi’s organs. This was specifically seen in the heart as reported in a new study published in JAMA  entitled, “Association Between Preterm Birth and Arrested Cardiac Growth in Adolescents and Young Adults”

We see a host of complications with premi’s including breathing problems, feeding difficulties, disorders such as cerebral palsydevelopmental delays   along with both vision and hearing losses.

WHY:

What’s the underlying factors for premature births. Let’s start by stating that often times we don’t know. There are contributing factors to consider such as:

Smoking: Being significantly overweight or underweight, before a pregnancy:

Not getting adaquate prenatal care:  Drinking alcohol or using street drugs during pregnancy:

Having health conditions, such as high blood pressure, preeclampsia, diabetes, blood clotting disorders, or infections:

Being pregnant with a baby that has certain birth defects: A pregnancy from in vitro fertilization:

Being pregnant with twins or other multiples: A family or personal history of premature labor:

Getting pregnant too soon after having a baby

With all of this in mind keep perspective that you can address many of the risk factors, let’s consider some options. And don’t forget to tell your health care provider if you or your family member was born prematurely.

 

      Take Aways:

       

      Pay more attention to good heart theraputics which should include:

  •      Never smoke
  •      Have an adequate vitamin K2 intake
  •      Avoid any heart damaging drug therapies,  See this list: CLINICAL UPDATES ON DRUG – INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY
  •      Eat a diet low in saturated fats, preferably oriented towards a whole foods plant based approach (see Dean Ornish’s work),
  •      Exercise with a focus on aerobic conditioning,
    Consider an ultrasound examination periodically……

 Association Between Preterm Birth and Arrested Cardiac Growth in Adolescents and Young Adults

Key Points

Question  What are the consequences of premature birth for later cardiac structure and function?

Findings  In this cardiac magnetic resonance imaging–based cross-sectional cohort study, adolescents (n = 20) and young adults (n = 38) born moderately to extremely preterm (≤32 weeks) demonstrated statistically significantly smaller biventricular cardiac chamber size and lower biventricular mass compared with 52 age-matched participants who were born at term. Cardiac function was preserved, with a hypercontractile strain pattern in adults.

Meaning  Adolescents and young adults born prematurely had statistically significantly smaller biventricular cardiac chamber size with preserved function, notably without a hypertrophic response, which may contribute to their increased lifetime cardiovascular risk.

Abstract

Importance  Premature birth is associated with substantially higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease, including arrhythmia, ischemic disease, and heart failure, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.

Objective  To characterize cardiac structure and function in adolescents and young adults born preterm using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Design, Setting, and Participants  This cross-sectional cohort study at an academic medical center included adolescents and young adults born moderately to extremely premature (20 in the adolescent cohort born from 2003 to 2004 and 38 in the young adult cohort born in the 1980s and 1990s) and 52 age-matched participants who were born at term and underwent cardiac MRI. The dates of analysis were February 2016 to October 2019.

Exposures  Premature birth (gestational age ≤32 weeks) or birth weight less than 1500 g.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Main study outcomes included MRI measures of biventricular volume, mass, and strain.

Results  Of 40 adolescents (24 [60%] girls), the mean (SD) age of participants in the term and preterm groups was 13.3 (0.7) years and 13.0 (0.7) years, respectively. Of 70 adults (43 [61%] women), the mean (SD) age of participants in the term and preterm groups was 25.4 (2.9) years and 26.5 (3.5) years, respectively. Participants from both age cohorts who were born prematurely had statistically significantly smaller biventricular cardiac chamber size compared with participants in the term group: the mean (SD) left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was 72 (7) vs 80 (9) and 80 (10) vs 92 (15) mL/m2 for adolescents and adults in the preterm group compared with age-matched participants in the term group, respectively (P < .001), and the mean (SD) left ventricular end-systolic volume index was 30 (4) vs 34 (6) and 32 (7) vs 38 (8) mL/m2, respectively (P < .001). Stroke volume index was also reduced in adolescent vs adult participants in the preterm group vs age-matched participants in the term group, with a mean (SD) of 42 (7) vs 46 (7) and 48 (7) vs 54 (9) mL/m2, respectively (P < .001), although biventricular ejection fractions were preserved. Biventricular mass was statistically significantly lower in adolescents and adults born preterm: the mean (SD) left ventricular mass index was 39.6 (5.9) vs 44.4 (7.5) and 40.7 (7.3) vs 49.8 (14.0), respectively (P < .001). Cardiac strain analyses demonstrated a hypercontractile heart, primarily in the right ventricle, in adults born prematurely.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this cross-sectional study, adolescents and young adults born prematurely had statistically significantly smaller biventricular cardiac chamber size and decreased cardiac mass. Although function was preserved in both age groups, these morphologic differences may be associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular disease risk after premature birth.




You thought Organic Chocolate and Cocoa were toxin free….wrong !

chocolate lead cadmium

Cocoa and Chocolate is a favorite among us all. It’s cold outside and well hot cocoa or a chocolate products are a winners, across most ages.

Let’s cut to the chase chocolate is a big seller and a huge business. The last sales figures, from 2015, was chocolate sales were $101 billion, with an estimated use of 7.7 million tons used in 2018/2019 and growing. But theres a problem and it’s industry wide.

Apparently starting in 2014 the As you Sow  group, a non-profit organization using shareholder advocacy to promote environmental and social corporate responsibility, started testing samples of chocolate for heavy metals. They focused on both lead and cadmium, two of the highly toxic metals that should not be ingested, especially if your pregnant or a youngster.

Toxins:

A quick primer on why the small amounts of either toxin counts. Unlike many toxic materials these two accumulate in our system and are very difficult to excrete. So what happens over time and with a small intake regularly…. results in a toxic load for the body.

Lead is a neurotoxin meaning that it interferes with your nervous systems formation and function.  Lead can cause severe damage to the brain and kidneys, creates learning disabilities, seizures, and results in lower IQ’s. In a child’s developing brain, lead interferes with synapse formation in the cerebral cortexneurochemical development (including that of neurotransmitters), and the organization of ion channels. Early childhood exposure has been linked with an increased risk of sleep disturbances and excessive daytime drowsiness in later childhood. High blood levels are associated with delayed puberty in girls. There is no safe level of lead and that’s universally accepted.

Cadmium has no known function in humans. Cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen [Group 1 – according to International Agency for Research on Cancer; Group 2a – according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and 1B carcinogen classified by European Chemical Agency . This toxin causes reproductive harm along with damage to the kidney, liver, and bones, while also impairing neurobehavioral development. The kidney damage inflicted by cadmium poisoning is irreversible.

Back to the Chocolate:

The findings, after looking at more than 120 samples, were really concerning as the majority of products checked failed the grade…..and your probably wondering is my brand on the list.

They looked at a wide variety of manufacturers and found, “Based on the results of our testing, which found 96 of the 127 chocolate products tested contain lead and/or cadmium above California’s MADLs,  (Maximal Allowable Dose Level) we filed legal notices with over 20 companies, including Trader Joe’s, Hershey’s, Mondelēz, Lindt, Whole Foods, Kroger, Godiva, See’s Candies, Mars, Theo Chocolate, Equal Exchange, Ghirardelli, and Chocolove, for failing to warn consumers that their chocolate products contain cadmium or lead, or both.”

The group took the companies to task and “In 2018, our legal efforts culminated in a first-of-its-kind settlement with the world’s largest chocolate companies. In partnership with As You Sow, 31 chocolate companies, including Cargill, Hershey, Mars, and Nestle, have committed to funding an independent expert committee to investigate the sources of lead and cadmium in chocolate, find feasible measures to lower levels of these metals, and evaluate and recommend the lead and cadmium concentration levels in chocolate that trigger Proposition 65 warnings.

” The actual settlement agreement includes:  Barry Callebaut (USA), Blommer Chocolate Co., Cargill, Inc., Guittard Chocolate Co., The Hershey Company, Lindt & Sprungli (North America), Mars Incorporated, Mondelez Global LLC, and Nestle USA, Inc. The Superior Court also authorized an “opt-in” program that will enable additional companies that make or offer chocolate products for sale in California to become additional parties to the settlement if they are willing to comply with the terms of the settlement.

However, there is some very concerning wording.” committed to funding an independent expert committee to investigate…..” I’m sorry but my suspicions are forward when these companies already knew, for 4 years, that their products were tainted with poison toxins and now their finally going to look into the problem to avoid a Prop65 warning ? For those of you in the legal profession reading the settlement is really worrisome. Is this going to be another long drawn out affair with little resolution ?

And not to throw a wet towel into the fray but the FDA found that,  “Dark chocolate samples tended to have higher lead levels than milk chocolate samples because chocolate liquor is the principal source of lead in chocolate products, and dark chocolate products contain higher amounts of chocolate liquor than milk chocolate products.”

And on to Cocoa:

In many recent health blogs and videos the suggestion is to use cacao instead of chocolate to benefit from the higher polyphenols (good natural chemicals) and decrease your intake of both the fat and sugar content. On the mark suggestions if your only focused on the beneficial chemicals.  However if your thinking of using cocoa for it’s super food qualities, you may want to reconsider or pick a brand carefully. 

The Forensic Food Lab did a deep dive into cocoa products and sure enough the levels of toxic metals is REALLY concerning. Their evaluation included arsenic, which was found in all samples and other toxins with reveling results.

Now the good news is that not all brands were as bad. Check out all the ratings at the bottom of the Forensic Food page. Three brands made the A grade, with limited toxins.

3  Safer Options:

Peruvian Cacao Nibs (Essential Living Foods)Balinese Cacao Nibs (Earth Circle Organics) 100% Organic Cacao Nibs (Health Ranger Select) (This is a brand from the creator of the Forensic Food lab)

 Action Steps: So whats a consumer to do ?

Check out the two lists and see what you have in your pantry.

If the product is high in toxins, bring it back to the store you purchased it from and ask that they not carry tainted items. Show them the listings.

You can make a difference by contacting your favorite chocolate/cocoa companies and asking for a change and getting an update on their participation.

If they are not on the list of those already taking part, ask them to opt-in.

Want to get more involved ? Contact Cyrus Nemati at: AS YOU SOW
510-735-8157; CNemati@AsYouSow.org

Or perhaps want to get the industries contact person a call, Christopher Gindlesperger  NATIONAL CONFECTIONERS ASSOCIATION 
202-203-9006; CG@CandyUSA.com  or see their take on the settlement.




Taking anti-depressant medication (SSRIs) changes your babies brain

SSRIs SSRI Depression

When your taking SSRIs, a popular class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin uptake inhibitors  and pregnant, the effects are noticeable in your babies brain as well. In  the journal of the American Medical Association, Pediatrics (JAMA) their study saw an increasing size in two areas of the babies brains, the amygdalae and insular cortices. These areas are involved in processing emotions and when you consider animal studies that mimic this impact you see .

The study has a limited number of participants, 16 babies of mom’s using SSI’s compared to the cohort of 82 non SSRI users, 21 of which have been diagnosed with depression. The researchers concluded that ,”The difference could result from the drug disrupting serotonin levels during brain development”. Not so fast……

New theories however are casting a doubt on this mechanism alone. In a 2017 paper,”The Effect of Serotonin-Targeting Antidepressants on Neurogenesis and Neuronal Maturation of the Hippocampus Mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 Receptors”, builds on the understanding that we are actually changing brain structures. There’s far more going on than just modulation of seratonin. With this in mind we still don’t know the full extent of the changes taking place in your babies brain.

To cast light on a more long term consideration, a human study this one, a Finnish study  done in 2016, the lead clinician Dr. Heli Malm evaluated  65,000 women and their children. Her findings are significant as the team found that adolescents exposed to SSRIs when pregnant were four times as likely to become depressed by age 15.

Untreated depression in pregnancy has serious risks for mother and baby. Stress and many other factors are significant when your growing your baby. There is no question that risk assessment or other medications or therapies should be considered carefully. Take the time to discuss this and other concerns with your health care provider.

 

Take aways:

Consider the benefits and risks of all drug use ESPECIALLY, if pregnant or considering a pregnancy

The effect of SSRI’s are long term so a short period of abstention is not adequate and can put you at risk 

Make certain to include other classes of medications and supplements in your evaluation of Risk/Benefits

Then do a overview of your lifestyle, including the obvious smoking, alcohol use and the many other considerations to address your pregnancy

Consult with your health care provider and bring this information to their attention

 



Products, taken when pregnant, affects your child’s risk of allergies

egg eczema allergies risk fish oil

Reduce your child’s risk of allergies

A government study commissioned by the British Food Standards Agency, had scientists at the Imperial College in London pool data from more than 400 studies involving 1.5 million mothers and their children and had some rather astounding findings regarding allergy risks.

When one, yes one fish oil capsule was taken starting at the 20th week pregnancy and continued for 3-4 months during breastfeeding, egg allergies  were reduced by 30 percent. And  the risk of developing Eczema  was reduced by 22 per cent in children whose mothers took a probiotic supplement between 36 and 38 weeks of pregnancy.

For many of our readers this is less than new news as there continues to be a barrage of new information supporting the use of these two very accessable low risk products. When it comes to the fish oils remember that they should be refrigerated and to purchase quality products. How do you know…. it’s not the price it has to do with the source, processing and what’s used to keep the oil from going rancid. A good article on the subject is available at: Nordic Naturals.  To be clear there are other reputable firms that also produce quality products. Their explanation of how to choose a fish oil capsule is why their site is listed.

It’s important to note that there are non-fish sources of the DHA/EPA active ingredients found in the fish based capsules. Algal oil, an algae based option, is a viable and easily available product to consider. It has a lower potential for toxic metal accumulation and clearly is more ecologically sound. 

On the probiotic news sites. There has been a similar explosion of literature most of which has focused on the fact that the numbers game being played in the commercial arena should not be the swaying factor to purchase an item. There is also the use of many strains to try to get every type of probiotic into a pill or capsule. Again this may not be the key to a good product. Most of the published papers regarding the friendly bacteria in PubMed clearly only use a single or a few stains of a known concentration to achieve disease changes. 

One of the newest considerations regarding one’s gut bacteria are what other medications, not antibiotics, are being taken. Did you know that the ~24% of non-antibiotic common medications have an influence on your microbiome. (gut contents) Now it would be almost silly not to suggest that the class of prebiotics, those products that feed our gut bacteria, should be a starting point regardless of where you are in terms of your pregnancy or breastfeeding journey. Easiest way to seed the microbiome…..eat lots of fiber containing foods. Veggies top the list but don’t leave out all the rest of the whole food plant based groups.

Another interesting finding of this meta analysis,  the researchers “found no evidence that avoiding potentially allergenic foods such as nuts, dairy and eggs during pregnancy made a difference to a child’s allergy or eczema risk.”

So should you consider using both a fish or non-fish based oil capsule and/or a probiotic ? See your health care provider and open up the dialogue.

Fish oil during pregnancy ‘slashes risk of child food allergies’

The Government-commissioned study is the largest ever of its kind
Henry Bodkin
28 February 2018 • 7:00pm
Taking fish oil during pregnancy cuts the risk of some child allergies by nearly a third, a Government study suggests. A daily fish oil capsule taken after the 20th week of pregnancy and for the first three or four months of breastfeeding cut the chances of a child developing an egg allergy by 30 per cent, the research showed.
Eczema risk was reduced by 22 per cent in children whose mothers took a probiotic supplement between 36 and 38 weeks of pregnancy.Adding beneficial bacteria to the diet during the first three to six months of breastfeeding had the same effect.The findings come from one of the biggest investigations of maternal diet and childhood allergy ever undertaken.
Commissioned by the Food Standards Agency, scientists at Imperial College London pooled data from more than 400 studies involving 1.5 million mothers and their children.
While clear benefits were seen from fish oil and probiotics, there was no evidence that avoiding potentially allergy-triggering foods such as nuts, dairy produce and eggs during pregnancy had any effect.
Lead researcher Dr Robert Boyle, from Imperial College London, said: “Food allergies and eczema in children are a growing problem across the world.
“Although there has been a suggestion that what a woman eats during pregnancy may affect her baby’s risk of developing allergies or eczema, until now there has never been such a comprehensive analysis of the data.
“Our research suggests probiotic and fish oil supplements may reduce a child’s risk of developing an allergic condition, and these findings need to be considered when guidelines for pregnant women are updated.” Allergies to foods such as nuts, egg, milk or wheat affect around one in 20 children in the UK. They are the result of the immune system overreacting to harmless substances, leading to symptoms such as rashes, swelling, vomiting and wheezing.
Probiotics was linked to reduced risk of eczema. Eczema, also thought to involve an overactive immune response, affects around one in five children in the UK and causes dry, cracked and itchy skin. People who suffer from eczema are also more likely to have allergies. More work is needed to understand how fish oils and probiotics may protect against allergies and eczema, according to study co-author Dr Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, also from Imperial College. She said: “Despite allergies and eczema being on the rise, and affecting millions of children, we are still hunting for the root causes of these conditions, and how to prevent them. “This study has provided clues, which we now need to follow with further research.” The new findings appear in the latest issue of the online journal Public Library of Science Medicine.
Previous studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil may help to dampen down an overactive immune system. Probiotics, taken in the form of capsules, a powder or a health drink, contain live bacteria that may influence the natural balance of microbes in the gut. Scientists have linked the disruption of naturally occurring gut “flora” to allergy risk.
Commenting on the research, Seif Shaheen, professor of respiratory epidemiology at Queen Mary University of London, said: “More definitive answers on the possible role of maternal probiotic and fish oil supplementation in the prevention of childhood allergic disease can only come from further large trials, which follow up the children to school age.
“If such trials are big enough they may be able to identify particular subgroups of mothers and children who would benefit most from these interventions.”



Breast Feeding & Parabens are in your breast milk, yech !

breastfeeding parabens

Have you been using commercial conditioners, lotions or shampoo and breast feeding ? 

Once again another study published in the Environmental Science and Technology journal checked the urine and breast milk of 56 women. They checked for the contents of parabens, a class of chemicals typically used as fragrances and as an antibacterials in a broad range of typical personal care products.

Next time you consider showering and slathering on the smooth smelly lotion give the products a second or even third thought. If the ingredients include “fragrances” forget it, period. If it says something cute such as natural fragrances once again ditch the bottle. And if they say something that ends with the word  xxxxxparaben, it’s clearly toxic. Let’s expand the list of items some and make better choices. Dive into your cosmetics and guess what its the same issue. Did you check your toothpaste and mouthwash, yech !

An interesting quote from the study conclusion,  “women who used make up or eye makeup and skin cleansers in the past 24 h also showed significantly higher PP levels in their breast milk. Braun et al.6 also showed significantly higher levels of BP, MP, and PP in pregnant women who used cosmetics and lotions in the past 24 h compared to those who did not.”

If you want to get really concerned you might read this article in total and take away  a few real no-no’s. One, the toxic products show up in your breast milk and urine quickly and can last for extended period. With rate exceptions no one has a zero contents in their body. We would be remiss if we did’nt metion the guys. There may be a corrolation with infertility. So don’t pass the bottle to your partner. Two the science behind parabens is solid, it’s a bad idea as it disrupts ones hormones.  They may smell nice and keep bacteria at bay but…..reality it’s a negative for both your self and your developing youngster.

Did you know that unlike in the US the European Union recently banned 5 types of parabens from cosmetics ? 

Time for a change…..check out our expanding store of verified non paraben contining products and be safe.

 

Paraben Concentrations in Maternal Urine and Breast Milk and Its Association with Personal Care Product Use

Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04302
Publication Date (Web): March 20, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

Parabens are broad-spectrum antimicrobial preservatives and fragrances used in a wide range of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and food providing the opportunity for people to be exposed on a daily basis. In 2009–2010, 80 pregnant women from Ottawa Canada participated in the Plastics and Personal-Care Product Use in Pregnancy (P4) Study. A subset of women (n = 31) who provided multiple spot urine samples (n = 542) collected over two 24-h periods had their samples analyzed for methylparaben (MP), n-propylparaben (PP), ethylparaben (EP), butylparaben (BP), isobutylparaben (IBP), and benzylparaben (BzP). These parabens were also measured in breast milk samples collected at approximately 3 months postpartum (n = 56 women). Women kept a diary of products that they used 24 h prior to and during the collection. All parabens measured in maternal urine had moderate to high reproducibility. Women who used lotions in the past 24 h had significantly higher geometric mean paraben concentrations (80–110%) in their urine than women who reported no use in the past 24 h. Women who used shampoo, conditioner, and cosmetics also showed 70–80% higher BP concentrations in their urine. Breast milk samples had >50% detection for MP, PP, and EP.

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